Summa Theologiae by St. Thomas Aquinas
TP: Treatise On The Sacraments
Q[86] Of The Effect Of Penance, As Regards The Pardon Of Mortal Sin
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We must now consider the effect of Penance; and (1) as regards the pardon of mortal sins; (2) as regards the pardon of venial sins; (3) as regards the return of sins which have been pardoned; (4) as regards the recovery of the virtues.

Under the first head there are six points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether all mortal sins are taken away by Penance?

A[2] Whether they can be taken away without Penance?

A[3] Whether one can be taken away without the other?

A[4] Whether Penance takes away the guilt while the debt remains?

A[5] Whether any remnants of sin remain?

A[6] Whether the removal of sin is the effect of Penance as a virtue, or as a sacrament?