We must now consider the effect of Penance; and (1) as regards the pardon of mortal sins; (2) as regards the pardon of venial sins; (3) as regards the return of sins which have been pardoned; (4) as regards the recovery of the virtues.
Under the first head there are six points of inquiry:
A Whether all mortal sins are taken away by Penance?
A Whether they can be taken away without Penance?
A Whether one can be taken away without the other?
A Whether Penance takes away the guilt while the debt remains?
A Whether any remnants of sin remain?
A Whether the removal of sin is the effect of Penance as a virtue, or as a sacrament?