Summa Theologiae by St. Thomas Aquinas
SS: Treatise On The Cardinal Virtues
Q[64] Of Murder
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In due sequence we must consider the vices opposed to commutative justice. We must consider (1) those sins that are committed in relation to involuntary commutations; (2) those that are committed with regard to voluntary commutations. Sins are committed in relation to involuntary commutations by doing an injury to one's neighbor against his will: and this can be done in two ways, namely by deed or by word. By deed when one's neighbor is injured either in his own person, or in a person connected with him, or in his possessions.

We must therefore consider these points in due order, and in the first place we shall consider murder whereby a man inflicts the greatest injury on his neighbor. Under this head there are eight points of inquiry:

A[1] Whether it is a sin to kill dumb animals or even plants? (2) Whether it is lawful to kill a sinner?

A[3] Whether this is lawful to a private individual, or to a public person only?

A[4] Whether this is lawful to a cleric?

A[5] Whether it is lawful to kill oneself?

A[6] Whether it is lawful to kill a just man?

A[7] Whether it is lawful to kill a man in self-defense?

A[8] Whether accidental homicide is a mortal sin?